Transportation of hazardous wastes (HW) are planned and expected to :
satisfy the needs of occupier and handlers,
meet national and -if necessary - international, e.g. UN, safety
Transportation is one of the most important areas of concern associated with
handling HW because the packaging and method of transporting HW will determine
the likelihood that an accident or spill with occur. Proper and rapid
identification of a spilled substance will determine how effectively and
safely the situation can be controlled.
Spill risk is high during loading, transportation and unloading. This is one
reason that the transportation of HW is generally highly regulated. HW
transportation regulations cover the transportation of HW outside of an
installation, e.g. the way from the waste generator to the waste management
facility. These off-side transportation requirements involve proper :
- Container :
appropriate material, leak proof, mechanical stability...
- Labeling of container :
- Vehicles :
selection : technical competence and relevant skills and other
- License/Manifest :
application and documents,
- Emergency procedures :
- Fees and fines :
license, break of regulation
On site transportation
typically involves smaller amounts of materials over shorter distances.
On-site transport does, however, pose significant risks from the frequency of
the activity and the lack of proper regulation.
Regulatory requirements of packaging, labeling and transportation of hazardous
wastes are given under Rule 7 of Hazardous Wastes (management & Handling )
Rules, 1989, as amended, notified under the Environment (Protection) Act,
1986. it is the responsibility of the occupier or operator of a facility to
ensure that hazardous wastes are packaged, based on the composition in a
manner suitable of handling, storage and transport. The labeling and packaging
is required to be easily visible and be able to withstand physical conditions
and climatic factors.
These guidelines are issued to facilitate safe transportation of hazardous
wastes in compliance of the regulations.
The containers must be able to withstand normal handling and retain integrity
for a minimum of six months. In general, packaging for hazardous substances
must meet the following requirements :
- Items must be of such a strength, construction and type as
not break open or become defective during transportation.
- Items must be constructed and closed in a manner to prevent
spillage of hazardous substances.
- Re-packaging materials including fastening must not be affected
by the contents or form a dangerous combination with them.
The containers when used for packaging of the hazardous wastes should meet the
following requirements :
- Container shall be of mild
steel with suitable corrosion and roll-on roll-off cover which may either be
handled by articulated crane or by a hook lift system works comfortably for
a large variety of wastes. Other modes of packaging like collection in 200-L
MS and plastic drums, cad board cartons, PP and HDPE/LDP containers also
works for variety of waters. However all such container should be amenable
to mechanical handling.
- It should be leak proof.
- In general, containers for
liquid HW should be completely closed (in fact : sealed). There should be no
gas generation due to chemical reaction and therefore, no need for air
vents; expansion due to temperature increase/decrease normally does not need
- Container should be
covered with a solid lid or a canvas to avoid emissions, spillage, dust and
to minimize odour generation both at the point of loading as well as during
- Container should be easy
to handle during transportation and emptying.
- As far as possible manual
handling of containers should be minimized. Appropriate material handling
equipment is to be used to lad, transport and unload containers. This
equipment includes drum, dollies, forklifts, drum handling equipment, lift
gates and pallets. Drums should not be rolled on or off vehicles.
- Where 2-tier or 3-tier
storage is envisaged the frame should have adequate strength to hold the
- The multi-use containers
should be re-usable. One-way containers (especially 160 I - drums) are also
- Load are to be properly
placed on vehicles. HW containers are not to overhang, perch, lean or be
placed in other unstable positions. Load should be secured with straps,
clamps, braces or other measures to prevent movement and loss. Design of the
container should eb such that it can be safely accommodated on the transport
- Dissimilar wastes shall
not be collected in the same container. Wastes shall be segregated and
packed separately. This is necessary to ensure that each waste finds its way
to the right disposal pathway.
- Occupier/hazardous waste
generator shall not resort to the dilution of wastes (predominantly organic
There are two types of labeling requirements :
- Labeling of individual transport containers ranging from a
print-size to a tank and
- Labeling of transport vehicles.
All hazardous wastes containers must be clearly marked with current contents.
The marking must be water proof and firmly attached so that they cannot be
removed. Previous content labels, when different, should be obliterated.
Proper marking of containers is essential.
Containers that contain HW must include the words "HAZARDOUS WASTE". The
information on the label must include the code number of the waste, the waste
type, the origin (name, address, telephone number of the generator), hazardous
property (e.g. flammable) and the symbol for the hazardous property (e.g. the
red square with flame symbol).
The label must withstand the effects of rain and sun. Labeling of containers
is important for tracking the wastes from the point of generation upto the
final disposal. Following are the requirement for labeling :
- The label should contain
the name and address of the waste management facility where it is being sent
for treatment and final disposal.
- Emergency contact phone
number shall be prominently displayed. For example respective
Regional Officer of the
Station Pollution Control Board, Fire Station, Police Station.
Explanation : As a general rules, the label has to state the
origin/generator of the waste. He- and only he - is responsible and should
know - in case of accidents/ spillage etc. - what kind of wastes it is, what
hazard may occur and which measures should be taken. Second in the line is the
collector/transporter, who has to know the risk and what to do to minimize
risks and hazards.
Following are the requirements pertaining to the transportation of hazardous
- Vehicle used for
transportation shall be in accordance with the provisions under the Motor
Vehicles Act, 1986, and rules made thereunder.
- Transporter shall possess
valid authorisation from State Pollution Control Board for transportation of
- PUCC (Pollution Under
Control Certificate) shall be properly displayed.
- Vehicles should be painted
preferably in blue colour with white strip of 15 to 30 cm width running
centrally all over the body. This is to facilitate easy identification.
- Vehicles should be fitted
with mechanical handling equipment as may be required for safe handling and
transportation of the wastes.
- The words "HAZARDOUS
WASTE" shall be displayed on all sides of the vehicle.
- Name of the facility
operator or the transporter, as the case may be, shall be displayed.
- Emergency phone numbers
and TREM Card shall be displayed properly.
- Vehicles shall be fitted
with roll-on/roll-off covers if the individual containers do not possess the
- Carrying of passengers
except in the cabin and those working with the waste haulers, shall be
- Transporter shall carry
documents of manifest for the wastes during transportation as required under
the Hazardous Waste Rules, 1989, as amended.
- The trucks shall eb
dedicated for transportation of hazardous wastes and they shall not be used
for any other purpose.
- Each vehicle shall carry
first aid kit and fire extinguisher.
- Educational qualification
for the driver shall be minimum of 10th pass (SSC). Driver(s) shall be
properly trained for handling the emergency situations and safety aspects
involved in the transpiration of hazardous wastes.
- The design of the trucks
should be such that it should prevent spillages during transportations.